Good and Bad Product Contextual Ads

Contextual advertising is an online ad for content-based sites. For contextual ads, targeted ads will appear in accordance with the current content of the page.

First, a contextual ad system finds the webpage text for keyword phrases. After that, some targeted ads will be returned based on the content they view.

If a person looks at the art kits page, then these ads are for art suppliers, painters, online art museums, etc.

Contextual ads appear as follows:

  • Separate ads placed on specific pages of the page
  • Inline or Text Contextual Ads

Sponsored Links Ads

Typically, these ads are text ads that contain links to related sites. The site owner can choose the location of your site where you want to place contextual ads. Your ad will appear in a sponsored link account. You must use the contextual ad to use the features of the click-through search engine. This format is promoted by Google AdWords and Adsense

Inline Advertisements

Inline ads appear in the form of links to the text terms of a web site. When the mouse floats over the expression, it will find a brief description of a cabinet that looks like a tool tip. If the reader wants to know more, just click on the link.

Advantages of contextual ads

  • Only people who already search this information or related information
  • You only pay when someone clicks on the link
  • Such relationships do not hurt people
  • If the information provided is good, the user will be happy

Disadvantages of Contextual Advertising

  • Dismiss people from what they want to read
  • If the ad's location is in content, people can get annoyed
  • Such ads have become more commonplace that web users have begun to ignore them
  • Ad competitor ads can be placed next to your ads
  • Serious users looking for information generally do not click on ads

Source by Anuja Aggarwal

8 Simple Steps to More AdWords Millionaire!

In this article, I & # 39; I'm going to tell you exactly what I did in the first week, the first small Google AdWords ad campaign to $ 1,000 six days.

Most, like me. Have you heard of people making huge amounts of Google AdWords. Or heard of someone building a great website, marketing and raking in tens of thousands of dollars in passive income.

Before we get into this, let me assure you that I'm just an ordinary person who believes that if another Bozo can do this, I can do it. And to let you know that I & # 39; m honest, you can email me and ask for the phone number. I & # 39; ll talk in person and tell you what I did. Once I found the training and tools, the Internet has become a clam!

It & # 39; and we all have a dream – the dream of being able to live your life on your own terms. Who would not like to travel, spend more time with his family, and buy what they want, and you need not to worry about it.

I read and bought almost everything you could, a full three years. During this time, nickel has not made any online business.

Then I found an Online Money Makers Club. It changed my life!

So, here & # 39; and what it taught me, right out of the gate. I watched the first video – one of hundreds of video tutorials (all on one side, by the way), and the money began to pour in every day. I watch the Perfume Account page. My sales of $ 200 and $ 300 per day.

Here it is:

Step # 1

Open an account with Google AdWords, Clickbank, an autoresponder, website builder, which is also for sale domain names.

Be sure to force yourself to organized immediately. There is nothing worse than not able to find the user names and passwords when you need them. We have a Rolodex type of system, passwords, etc. I know that some people are not online Rolodex, which is even more effective.

They also start each campaign a filing system right away. Just go to the My Computer folder and develop a campaign product. Everything you generate will be saved as files that go into that folder. Become obsessed with your records. This will save you so much time later.

Step 2

More Perfume and select your product. You choose products that are more obscure, but large "gravity" – an overall indication of how good the product is not in affiliate marketing. Products such as making money online or weight loss is too much competition. These products are overloaded. Go for things like cure for the disease, or acne solutions or books on pets. Those kinds of people desperate response, but not flooded subsidiaries in these markets.

Because you already have a Clickbank account, you can create a "hoplink" which allows you to promote your product and make money. A hoplink is the identifier embedded in it. Do not forget to save your hoplink a file and put it in the folder. Labeled carefully to know exactly what it is, if you & # 39; going back to look for.

Research the product. Sometimes you have an affiliate site where you can download and save your images and text for your own use.

Step # 3

Go back to your web site builder and get a domain name. AdWords ads, I use a long, hyphenated names, because no one will need to remember the URL and recreate it. They're only going to click on AdWords ads. The nice thing about a longer domain names that all AdWords "allowed spaces" they use to facilitate the ad more visible. By the way, you do not choose a long domain names for your website more informative.

Build a one-page website using the images and text can be downloaded for choosing the affiliate product. dialogue on the page, place links to hoplink code that you saved earlier in the text. It is easier than you think. Suppose you are writing a paragraph describing the product, just select the appropriate words (such as acne products). While emphasizing there, go up the toolbar and you will see the signal interconnection. Often it looks like a genuine two chain links. Click the icon and you'll see a box where you can insert your Clickbank hoplink. Do not forget to save your work. Look for the "Save" button is probably in the top toolbar.

Step # 4

Go to your auto responder and developed the & # 39; and so-called "list". The list is really just an automatic campaign name, that you can do to opt-in pages and follow-up letters. Follow the instructions and create an opt-in form, and at least two follow-up letters.

Look for a free product, you can give away to anyone who subscribes to respond on the website.

Copy and paste the link opt-in form, given to you after you create a form and place it somewhere on the page of a website. I put mine at the bottom. But the top of the homepage (website) is said to be "scroll to the bottom to register for a free e-book" … something like that. The Club I owe a lot to promote the use of the product for free. You can attach the free product of the second follow-up letter, autoresponder you created.

After placing the opt-in form on the page, go ahead and launch the site. You should see a place in the top menu bar to launch the website.

At this point, probably thinking it's all too complicated. If you have questions or are confused, there & # 39; and an e-mail link on the home page.

However, if you & # 39; ve gotten so far that you have a website ready to promote your product.

Step # 5

The Google browser window, type in the Google AdWords Keyword Tool. Click Keyword tool. When it comes up, type in the main block generating keywords. Well, let & # 39; s say you are promoting an eBook about curing acne. Make a "cure acne" field (the & # 39; s obvious when you see it), and then click Search. A list of appropriate keywords and phrases in com. Select the words and phrases you want to use by clicking the "Add" button in the phrase or word. To add a list of keywords. You will see a blue box with a few keywords. Those boxes indicate the level of competition. Try the "add" to the keywords that are not blue in them, or very low.

will want to start with 50-100 keywords. Scroll down to the bottom of the saved keywords and save the list as well as a document or spreadsheet is preferred.

Actually, I want to be both. Save documents. Remember to label them and put these files in a folder campaign.

Step # 6

Go to your AdWords account. Create a campaign named folder and name it the same way. Then more "ad groups" in one campaign. Each group is represented by a list of keywords that are very similar. Thus, one group is "Acne responses". Another group name to "cure skin problems". Will you highlight words keywords in the ad group (s). I love that about four groups within my campaign. I would also like to test two ads at a time within each group.

Now initiated within "Ad Group" is the first campaign. Create two ads using similar keywords. Your ads will be placed on hold until the approval. Make sure that both the campaign and ad group is set to "allow" when you're ready.

Step # 7

You will be asked to limit CPC and daily budget. You can learn all about keyword bidding and budget section of the AdWords Help Center.

Step # 8

Go back to the Google AdWords keyword tool. Delete the first list of selected keywords. It & # 39; s OK, because I remember the first list was saved. That is another keyword (or phrase) in the search box. You might put "teenage skin problems," and then look for. Follow the steps above. Except for those keywords. Back to Google AdWords, and create in an "ad group" is the first campaign.

Give yourself about two weeks to learn and watch the first campaign. Then, you start another campaign is an entirely different product Clickbank.

The best autoresponder AWeber opinion. Many website building sites. I & # 39; ve used Hostgator, GoDaddy and 1and1.

So that & # 39; s my story. It & # 39; It s really only one explanation how I learned to put together the first AdWords campaign. I & # 39; m pleased to say that the Internet has been happy because I found The Club!

Source by Christine C Strong

Advantages and Disadvantages of parked domains

A parked domain is a domain not have a website with some useful content, but still only a few ads related to the domain name. Why would someone register a domain and does a great website? Simply because he is only interested to make some quick income from the domain. This work or not.

there is no need to reserve a domain hosting. Car parking is usually the registration service and there are many registrars offer domain parking services to be special. There are two reasons when it makes sense to park your domain. If the domain is used, then maybe there are many links pointing to this area. This means that a user follows the link, and instead I get "page not found" error message is displayed on the page of ads related to a domain name.

The second, more important reason for the parking range when the range is a popular keyword or search. Many people are usually deliberately accidentally enter directly into the address bar of your browser. The browser is trying to find a website and automatically adds the.com range. If you have a domain with the browser search the associated web page.

If the parking range you can get a "strange" name in some ads are likely related to the domain name. There will be no useful content. And because you're likely curious to click some of those ads. This is it. This is the shortest way for someone to click on your ad. Of course, since no content of these parked domain is not ranked in the search engines.

If you have some attractive domain to get some traffic, you can create a simple website with some useful content is a much better choice. Not only does the site will be indexed by the search engines, users visiting this area will have some useful content, and does not leave the site immediately. There is still a possibility that some ads on this site and you are more likely to complement the content and not stand out.

do not need to be an expert in web design to create a simple website. With the help of some popular CMS like WordPress or Joomla is very easy and quick to create a website. And anyone can write a text about almost anything. You do not need to be an expert in this field, you just need to find resources, study them, and it is easy to write about it. Domain parking can be an easy way to do something for the domain. But a much better approach is to create a simple website with some useful content.

Source by Jan Pascal

What to expect when you buy a Turnkey Website

Buying a business website online can be somewhat daunting. In fact, buying something online can be intimidating if you've never done it before. Whether you are buying a turnkey website or a teddy bear in her grandson, but we do not see the seller face-to-face and have to rely on consumer review websites to determine whether the purchase is a good idea.

The first rapid signs of a good retailer if there is a way to reach them through their website, there is a good selection of different niche websites, and the domain name of turnkey websites for sale more than two years (that It indicates that the honest business practices and what is promised is delivered, so keeping them in business longer than a few months). Click here to learn more about how to find an honest turnkey websites for sale.

The first step is to buy a business website is probably the easiest part of the purchase process. In this step, the customer (you) authorizes the transaction is an online payment gateway or send money through the old-fashioned way to make money. (Note that money orders are the safest and most reliable way to send money to off-line. Cashier checks, in particular checks drawn on banks do not know, not a full proof safe and sometimes false can be.) But that statement aside, I prefer use online payment gateways (PayPal is my preferred method, Google Checkout is a close second) to send money when purchasing a turnkey website businesses.

The payment process is a little different depending on when Google Checkout, PayPal or other online payment gateway. But there are some common elements to all the online check-out procedures: You must enter your details (name, credit card number, etc.) or you can log in if you already have an account with the payment processor (PayPal, Google Checkout, etc.) Once you submit your information, you can usually go to the payment confirmation screen. Once you confirm your purchase, you will receive a confirmation message within the specified e-mail at the check-out process (or the e-mail address is not associated with an existing account that logged). The seller will also receive an email notification that the payment has been received, the amount and the item number or product name.

The payment systems such as PayPal, Google Checkout, Moneybookers or simply an easy, fast and secure way to transfer money online. Like Visa and other major credit card companies, these online payment systems are based on high level of security and send information securely via encrypted channels to your privacy. If a service like PayPal or Google Checkout, you can be sure that the money and the information will be safe.

The second step will be if you do not hear back in the turnkey websites for sale. They do not take into account the sales confirmation via PayPal or other payment gateway company to provide an effective response from the company. The companies usually respond within 24 working hours; answer some within just a few hours, and there are also longer, depending on the time difference and the volume of sales. If you feel that the time that a response has been too long, please do not hesitate to contact the company via email or the contact form on their website.

If you have not heard of the company, e-mail may contain information of the four following important steps:

  • How to upgrade the affiliate program link information
  • that the domain transfer process will work
  • How do I log in to the cPanel
  • What type of hosting is offered

(If you buy the site of the famous turn-key web retailers as ABC design Studio, you can get a domain name and hosting for free or reduced-price Click to ABC design Studio & # 39;.. and turn-key website for)

carefully read this e-mail and the instructions, so to understand what is required of you, so you can take the business owner. Do not wait too long and do not hesitate to ask if you need to. But keep in mind that a turnkey web agency, no matter how reputable is not responsible for the lack of action!

There are many things you have to do is sign up for an affiliate account (such as Google AdSense, Commission Junction or ClickBank) This process can take a while depending on how many affiliate programs are new turnkey website use . If you are not a computer expert, and website link multiple affiliate programs is mixed for you, expect to spend 1-2 hours can take affiliate program accounts and send an e-mail to the seller affiliate account details. Some companies will not send your information via a form, which is generally much safer than an e-mail. But all the facilities just fine.

The vendor is also likely to give instructions on how to set up an account on the domain retailers such as GoDaddy or HostGator. This is because having a website and an updated compilation, you need to have ownership of the domain name. The easiest way to do this is that the owners of the various vendor to vendor's website through a popular domain services, such as GoDaddy.

The third step to the process that happens after you receive an e-mail to turnkey website company to announce the affiliate program Link integration is complete, your hosting account is set up, and domain name is no longer you. If the company bought using GoDaddy – the largest online retailer of domain names and related digital products in the range – you'll need to log into GoDaddy account to accept the transfer.

Following the adoption of the transfer of the domain name, the website has successfully turned around for you. Here you can check the property provides visitors Http://www.whois.net and entering the website domain name. Do not allow a little more time in the WHOIS database to update the records. WhoIs can take anywhere from a few hours to a few days to better reflect the property website.

After receiving the domain to the steps outlined by turnkey websites for sale or company domain (GoDaddy, HostGator, etc.) – and verified ownership WhoIs – now it's official website is owned and operated business!

Of course, the work is not done. This is only the beginning by using the turnkey website business trip to make money online. The next step in the marketing, promotion and learning how to target traffic to your site, which I'll cover in future articles.

When a turnkey website shopping experience, each company is different. But there are some common themes in the buying process. If at any time you are not sure what to do, or do not know how to finalize the site & # 39; s ownership transfer for you, do not hesitate to contact the company you are buying.

The more information you have, and the better to understand how the buying process works site, the more comfortable and confident you will feel the decision you made – to an Internet entrepreneur and work for yourself.

Source by John L Gooding

Treating Allergies – Help Hives

hives One unfortunate side effect of many allergies. These pesky pink bumps and raised patches is not just unsightly – they & # 39; very itchy, burning and stingy!

hives can pop up anywhere in the body after coming into contact with or eating something that turns the immune system into overdrive, which allergic reactions. They may be relatively small (like a mosquito bite) or big as a dinner plate. Hives also comes with groups or clusters.

eating acidic foods Many people like fresh tomatoes, strawberries or hives, but did you know that virtually any food or allergen may cause the itchy swellings occur? It really just depends on how your body responds through (or react) to come into contact with allergens. While one person can itchy watery eyes and runny nose pollen, the other can get hives!

Are Hives are very common? Yes! It is estimated that more than 25% of us will be with them at least once in our lives.

When you & # 39; making it something that is causing the disease, the cells in the body begin to release a chemical called histamine, which is fluid leakage in the small blood vessels under the skin. When this liquid will collect under the skin, it forms the patches is called hives.

The most common cause of urticaria allergic reactions to insect bites, food, or other allergens. But other things can cause hives that. They are as follows:

Exposure to cold (like diving in a cold pool).

-Exercise.

-The V

-Stress.

caused

-Infections viruses.

No matter what the reason, a case of hives can last for a few minutes, a few hours or even a few long day.

antihistamines can be used to relieve the itching and burning hives, but usually disappear within all by themselves in a few hours or a few days. Sometimes, however, a stronger prescription medications are needed to alleviate the discomfort hives.

This is rare, but sometimes urticaria is a sign of a severe allergic reaction that can affect breathing and other body functions. If anyone can show any signs of breathing problems (the tight chest, swollen throat, hoarse voice or difficulty breathing) after & # 39; ve noticed hives appear, consult a doctor immediately! If an allergic reaction starts, limited the throat, it will prevent enough air into the lungs within minutes. There are people who know that these serious reactions carry a pen-shot like a dose of adrenaline called Epi-pen with them. Despite the ease discomfort that you still need to get to the hospital immediately.

As you can see, hives can be more than just an itchy annoyance outstanding. When coupled with severe allergies, it can be life-threatening. The important thing to remember is that in most cases, these transient response, we & # 39; ve touched or eaten, and it will go very little or no attention or medication.

Source by Matt Hick

The law of attraction – like attracts like

According to the Law of Attraction, we know everything is made of energy. Thoughts are energy. This creates an invisible force that is in our heads. The testing of this concept is called Mind Power.

The idea that the mind generates will affect not only their own lives but also those around us. What affects people's physical reality of our thoughts. The Law of Attraction clearly says everything that can happen, happens because we are attracted to. The law rules

Like attracts like one attraction. The term attractive similar similar, well-known and mentioned secret. The secret is the best guide for those that wants to be the law of attraction.

The term like attracts like this one hundred percent correct. This proves that the law of attraction work and keep working on our Universe. One example we can prove is like attracts like, we see that people are attracted to certain kinds of thoughts of people of the same kind of thoughts. In fact, the law of attraction will make them get along with each other. This makes them of understanding each other. The law of attraction is the wisest quotations to reflect this has Anais Nin. Anains Nin said he does not see things as they are; we see them as we are.

The law of attraction rule like attracts you to people like each other. Good people are good people shown. Spiritual between the spiritual man is shown. If you are a good person enters the wrong group of people, and soon you feel uncomfortable and will seek a way out. Every idea has a meaning. The law of attraction only allows you to use the same frequency attract each other. On the opposite spectrum due to the opposite result.

The Law of Attraction (like attracts like) operates non-stop and it attracts the things that we entertain most of our minds, consciously and unconsciously . Our goal is to recognize and utilize the law of attraction to our benefit. You need to understand the rules that comes with it, like attracts like, for example. Only then we can begin to create the reality that we want to experience.

Source by Avatar Tamilmagan

What are CPM, CPC, CPA and CTR?

CPM

CPM means cost per mille. (M is the Roman numeral for thousand mark – and therefore cost per thousand).

This amount will pay for the ad network or Web publisher thousand times your ad for your own website or the entire ad network.

Whether the ads each visitor only once (Unique Impressions), or any number of times – there's something you need to work out the nad-network, or website.

once a CPM rate (pre bubble burst in 2000 years of age) than $ 75, but now it was only $ 1 CPM.

CPC

CPC is Cost Per Click. This is how much you pay for the ad network or the website every time a visitor clicks on the banner. CPC rate can be as high as $ 3 per click, or just 5 cents per click. It depends on the product and the market – among other factors, the more competition there is – the higher you'll probably end up paying as you compete with competitors.

CPA

CPA is Cost Per Action. The action could be any of the following types of actions – in the form of a visitor clicks on the banner from the website and uploading a simple query (CPR – Cost Per Registration), or if the visitor of purchase (CPS – Cost Per Sale). This can be a flat fee or a percentage commission was for sale. Affiliate networks like commissionjunction, LinkShare and perfume is very good software systems to track all of this, and statistics for online merchants and publishers on the network websites.

I explained in detail how a network of partners on the other side. Basically, the publisher's websites sign up for free to start making sales commissions resulting from traffic sent to online merchants. The Partner Network tracks all from your own system and code of retailers and publishers are required to place on their website. Publishers can sign up for free mostly, and in some cases, online merchants must pay a one-time setup fee and a monthly charge any commissions – eg. As commissionjunction. A very popular place that is free of charge Clickbank Merchants network.

CTR

The CTR CTR. This percentage rate at which people click on a banner ad. If your banner ad is displayed 100 people, but a person clicks – you & # 39; and CTR of 1% or 0.01

Similarly, if a banner ad displayed 100,000 times, and at the same time it is clicked 2,000 times – then the banner CTR of 2% or 0.02.

This is how you calculate the CTR …

(number of clicks / impressions) x 100

For example, in the above case would be –

(2000 / 100000) x 100 = 0.02

CPM, CPC or CPA … what is best for my campaign?

The choice depends on various factors. Sometimes companies like Pepsi, I just want to enforce your brand and can be seen across a number of websites that do not require the user clicks on the banners. This is a brand hammering strategy and business would benefit from the CPM.

Besides the above massive branding effort, the decision to go to the CPC, CPM or CPA ad will appear after the decision, if you have a product that you would like to sell on your website.

would pay the rent just send you your visitors? or pay him for every thousand ad displays it for you? or rather pay a commission sales, sending you visitors?

This is tricky. You may have read in the following paragraphs slowly or even several times to the point of what I'm saying …

If you need help, you must first run a pilot CPM campaign, which helps to assess the results. The CPM campaign and the number of clicks on the banner, then you know exactly what your CTR (clickthrough rate) in the banner.

The CTR will help you decide on the type of campaign – a CPM or CPC? If your CTR is high, then go into the CPM if you go into a low CPC.

The reason for this is simple. If you have a low CTR would rather you pay only a small volume of traffic that comes to your site. If you have a high CTR, CPM that you can not pay – because the cost does not escalate into a more and more visitors to come to your site, but it remains the same.

I will explain the above, a few examples –

Example 1

Lets assume a website that you want to advertise charges $ 5.00 CPM and CPC 50 cents.

And you have to decide if you should go to CPM or CPC?

Lets suppose that for the first time in one million impressions.

This works out $ 5,000 ($ 5 x 1000 appearance 1000)

Now, let's CTR is not good, and 0.2% (or 2 clicks ad 1000)

now you have to calculate the amount you will pay in a CPC.

If the CTR of 0.2% to one million displays ads, it works by …

0.002 X 2000 = 1,000,000 clicks.

So basically you have paid $ 5,000 2000 clicks or $ 2.50 per click !!

This means that I am right to buy based on cost, because for me there is only one click 50cents! And if I go CPC, then I can get 10,000 clicks $ 5,000 … which is 5 times more than the click I get the CPM model (2000).

Example 2

assume that the banner ad turns out to be very good and you get a very good CTR, say, 5%

Now you need to decide ..CPM or CPC.

Lets analyze the above –

paid $ 5,000 1,000,000 5% Ad CTR

This means that 5% x 1,000,000 clicked on ads that matches

= 0.05 (5%) x 50000 = 1000000 click!

So I got $ 5,000 of 50,000 clicks.

Now, if I have one-click basis, the CPC rate (50cents) I will pay

$ 50,000 x 0.50 Click total of 50,000, which is $ 25,000 (five times what I would pay for CPM the same traffic)

So, I'm on the right to buy such a system CPM banner advertising campaign

What is CPA?

I included a chapter on this. This system is slowly becoming more popular. It seems that the fairest system of all three methods – especially if you are selling a product or service. They lean into account CPC system into a real and measurable CPA to Google and Yahoo. Google recently launched Google Analytics and Google & # 39; Version PayPal (Google Checkout) – this is a positive and decisive step in the CPA plans.
Selling ad space on the website – how much can you spend?

Today, CPM prices fell a height of $ 50 and $ 10 and $ 2 in many cases.

If you have high traffic may approach ad-networks, and they serve ads to your website. You get a piece of code to paste the pages of your website. You will get a username and password to login to the website of the main centers in the field of ad networks to see how the site performs. Ad networks pay a CPM or CPC basis, depending on whether you choose what kind of customer (the advertiser). They will go from 40% to 60% commission. This is acceptable, considering the fact that you customers and revenue, and to handle all advertising technology and payment systems.

Most of these ad networks require that a certain number of impressions per month is entitled to become part of a network of websites. For example, DoubleClick requires a minimum of 5 million monthly page impressions. Many mid-sized networks, such as advertising, fastclick, ValueClick (CPC partly owned DoubleClick only), and an even smaller ad networks like, burstnet. You can visit adbalance to the short list and popular advertising networks.

Banner Software

If you want to manage your own clients and banner ads on the website, you need to develop an ad-serving engine or motor third party license and install it on your website. You can get a list of free and paid software scripts that can be installed using the website or the cgi-resources.com hotscripts.com

Source by Vishal Lamba

The difference between Banner Advertising and Pay Per Click advertising

Both banner ads and pay-per-click effective method of marketing on the internet, in this article I will point out the differences between the two forms of marketing .

First banner ads, billboard ads are similar to those seen by the roadside is not available. They have an advantage over traditional billboard ads, there is the ability to track the number of people who are interested in the number of ad clicks on your ad.

This has the advantage in most types of marketing on the Internet, banner ads and benefit from this as well. It can also be seen as a direct method of marketing because the prospect can take immediate action when you click on the ad.

Banner ads are usually placed on websites, they are usually on the top of a page or website, they called skyscraper ads. Banner ads rely on the traffic to a website that attracts targeted prospects and a banner ad on the home page it on the market, the better the result.

On the other hand, there is pay-per-click ads, these ads triggered by search typing in the keyword in a search. The ad tag is only based on what you type into the search box. The big difference is the banner ads and pay-per-click ads is the fact that the pay-per-click advertising are able to more tightly targeted, because you can choose when the ad is served based on the keywords you entered in the search.

Source by Tayo Binuyo

Software Engineering Why is it necessary?

To understand the need of software development, we need to stop briefly to look back to the recent past of computing. This history helps to understand the problems that began to become apparent in the late sixties and early seventies, and the solutions that have been active in the field of software for creating. They mentioned some of the problems, such as "The software Crisis," so named for the symptoms of the problem. The situation might have called "The Complexity Barrier," so named for the primary cause of the problems. Some refer to the software crisis in the past tense. The crisis is not yet over, but thanks to the development of many new techniques that are now included under the heading of software development, we have made and will continue to have progress.

In the early days of computing was the primary concern in the building or acquiring the hardware. Software almost expected to take care of yourself. The consensus held that "hardware" is "hard" to change, and the "software" of "soft" and easy to change. According to most people in the industry carefully planned hardware development but gave considerably less forethought to the software. If the software is not working, it was believed that it would be easy enough to change until it works. In that case, why bother to plan?

The cost of software has attained such a small fraction of the cost of the hardware that no one considered very important to manage its development. Everyone, however, saw the importance of producing programs were effective, and ran quickly because of the time saved on expensive hardware. People time was assumed to save machine time. This is how people process efficient received little priority.

This approach was deemed appropriate in the early days of computing, when the software was simple. However, the computing matured, programs and projects become increasingly complex growing, and programs regularly since then defined, written, operation and maintenance of all the same person, the program began to develop teams of programmers to meet someone & # 39; expectations.

than the individual effort through the work of the group. Communication and coordination which once went to a man's head had to happen between leaders of many individuals, so the whole process is more complicated. As a result, communication, management, planning and documentation became critical.

Consider this analogy: carpentry work to build a simple house for himself without more than a general concept of the plan. He was able to work things out and change the work progresses. It & # 39; and that the early programs were written. But if the home is more complicated, or if it is built for someone else, the carpenter has to plan more carefully, that the house was to be built. Plans need to consider the future owner before construction begins reviewed. And if the house is built by many carpenters, the whole project will certainly have to be planned prior to the start of work to build a single table of the house, the other did not build another house on the other side. Scheduling becomes a key element to the cement contractors pour the basement walls before the carpenters start the framing. As housing becomes more complex, and more people & # 39; s work should be coordinated, blueprints and management plans required.

The programs become more complex, the early methods used to make blueprints (flowcharts) were no longer satisfactory to represent this greater complexity. And it's so hard to become a person who needs a program written to convey to another person, the programmer just what he wanted, or for programmers to convey to each other what they are doing. In fact, no better visualization methods become even more difficult with a programmer to keep track of what he was doing.

The time needed to write programs, costs began to exceed all estimates. It was not unusual for systems cost more than twice as many had predicted and the weeks, months or years longer than expected. The system is turned over to the client often does not work properly because of money or time ran out before the programs could be developed as originally planned. Or the program is so complex that any attempt to fix a problem produced more problems than it fixed. As a client, finally he saw what he starts, often changed their minds about what they want. At least one very large military software systems project costing several hundred million dollars was abandoned because it could never be made to work properly.

The quality of the programs has become a big concern. As computers and programs used in more basic tasks, such as monitoring of life-saving equipment, program quality took on new meaning. Because of increased dependency on computers and in many cases no longer do without them, we discovered how important it is to operate.

Making a change within a complex program turned out to be very expensive. Often that the program was not a little bit different so heavy that it was easier to throw out the old program and start again. This was, of course, expensive. The evolution of software development approach to learning systems develop that are built well enough the first time that simple changes can be easily solved.

However, the hardware was growing less and less expensive. Tubes were replaced by transistors and transistors were replaced by integrated circuits until micro computers costing less than three thousand dollars has become a multi-million dollars. As to how quickly change is made, the cost of a given amount of calculation is reduced by half every two years. Since this adjustment, the time and cost to develop the software is not as small as the hardware that may be disregarded.

As the cost of hardware plummeted, software is still written by people whose wages are rising. The savings systems improve the productivity of software development from the use of compilers, assemblers, and database management is not acting as fast as the hardware cost savings. Indeed, today software costs not only can no longer be ignored, become greater than the hardware cost. Some current developments such as nonprocedural (fourth generation) languages ​​and artificial intelligence (fifth generation), show promise in increasing the productivity of software development, but are just now beginning to see that it is possible.

The other problem was that the previous programs was often not fully understood what the program needed to do. After the program has been completed, the client began to express dissatisfaction. And if the customer is dissatisfied, ultimately the producer also unhappy. As time went by software developers learned to lay out paper and pencil exactly what you intend to do before starting. Then it would review the plans for the client, if the client is satisfied & # 39; s expectations. It is simpler and less expensive to carry out these changes in the paper and pencil version than to the system after they are built. Using good planning makes it less likely that the changes to be made when the program ends.

Unfortunately, until a few years ago no good method of representation existed to describe satisfactorily systems as complex as those that are being developed today. The only good representation of what the product will look like it was the finished product. The developers were able to demonstrate to customers what they planned. And customers could not see whether what the software was what they wanted until it was built. Then it was too expensive to change.

Again, consider the analogy of building construction. An architect draw a floor plan. The client usually refers markets, as the designer intended and does not give feedback that is appropriate. Floorplans reasonably easy for the layman to understand, because most people are aware of the drawings representing geometrical objects. The architect and the client share common concepts of space and geometry. But the software engineer must represent the client system that includes logic and information processing. Since they have no common concepts of the language, the software engineer must teach a new language that can communicate with the customer before.

Furthermore, it is important that this language should be simple, so you can learn.

Source by Edeh Chijioke

Types of data cables

needed a transmission medium to transmit information from the source to the destination. The information is usually a sign that you have to travel a long distance. To do so, the transmission medium can be wired or wireless. Wired transmission signal passes the cable from one device to another. But the wireless transmission are transmitted without a physical conductor of electromagnetic waves. Three types of cables, for example.

twisted-pair cable 1-
2 coaxial cable
3 fiber optic cable

Twisted

The two twisted-pair cable copper conductors, each with its own plastic insulation and twisted together. A wireless signal and the other is used to ground reference. The advantage of twisting is that both wires also touched against external influences. So the unwanted signals are canceled out as the receiver calculates the difference between the two signal wires.

This two types of cables, for example.
1- UTP (unshielded twisted pair)
2- STP (shielded twisted pair)

STP cable plus a metal shield, which is insulated twisted pairs. But it lacks UTP cable. The most common UTP RJ45 connector.

The unshielded twisted pair cable is classified into seven categories based on quality. Category 1 cables used in telephone lines, the data transfer rate of about 0.1 Mbps. As used in Category 5 LAN with a 100 Mbps data transfer rate.

Performance of twisted-pair cable is measured by comparing attenuation is a function of frequency. Damping increases frequencies above 100 kHz.

These cables are used for phone lines to voice and data channels. DSL lines and Local Area Networks twisted pair cables.

coaxial cable

coaxial cable (coax) carries high frequency signals than twisted-pair cables. Coax central core conductor solid wire enclosed insulation which an outer conductor of aluminum foil. This outer conductor completes the circuit. External driver closed an insulator, and the whole cable is protected by a plastic cover.

These cables are categorized based RG (radio government). RG-59 used for Cable TV, RG-58 Ethernet thin and thick RG-11 Ethernet. The connector used in these cables is called BNC connector; It is used to connect the end of the cable to a device.

Although the coaxial cable greater bandwidth, but the attenuation is much higher compared to twisted-pair cables. It is widely used in digital telephone networks where a single cable can carry data at speeds up to 600 Mbps. Cable TV networks use RG-59 coaxial cable. Traditional Ethernet LANs also use this cable.

fiber-optic cable

The fiber optic cable transmits signals in the form of light. Using optical fibers to guide the reflection of light over a single channel. It consists of two main parts: core and cladding. Core is denser compare and cover made of plastic or glass. Housing Works guard core. The difference between the density of the core and cladding so that a light beam passing through the core is reflected from the casing, rather than being broken into.

There are two possible modes of propagation of light optical fiber, such as: multi and single mode. Multimode fiber allows multiple beams from a light source to move through the core. Multimode step-index fibers, the core density remains constant from the center to the edge. But in multimode graded-index fiber core density gradually decreases from the center, the core, to the edge. Graded index fiber creates less distortion in the signal compare the step-index.

Two types of connectors for fiber optic cables. The SC connectors used for cable TV, and ST connector used for connecting cable to networking devices. Attenuation of fiber optic cable is very low compare to other two. It provides high bandwidth and immunity to electromagnetic interference. Light weight and greater immunity to tapping makes it advantageous cable.

fiber optic backbone networks are often used for high-bandwidth and cost efficiency. Local networks such as 100Base-FX network and 100Base-X use this cable. It is also used in cable television companies.

Source by Aditya Smile